Home > Topic List


Pain is defined as physical suffering or discomfort caused by illness or injury. Acute and chronic are the two major types of pain. Acute Pain which comes on suddenly for a limited time. It is usually caused by damage to muscle, bone, or organs and come with stress and anxiety. Chronic pain is fairly resistant to medical treatment. It is usually associated with long-term illness and can be the result of damaged tissue but is often credited to damage nerves.


Pain Management

Pain Management is a rapidly growing medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and management of chronic pain. Doctors who specialize in pain management handle the problem from every possible direction. Pain Management treats primary and secondary source pain as a disease.


Parenting, or child rearing, refers to the particulars of raising a biological or non-biological child. According to the American Psychological Association, there are three major parenting practices. They are insuring their children’s health and safety, preparing their children for life as productive adults, and conveying cultural values.


In June 2018, The United States Patent Office issued its ten millionth patent using its current numbering system, which began with the Patent Act of 1836. It took 155 years (1836-1991) for the Patent Office to issue its first five million patents, but only twenty-seven years to issue the next five million. There were over 308,000 patents issued in 2018 alone.


Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of diseases and Pathologists are the detectives of the medical profession. It is the branch of medicine that works in the laboratory and examines samples of body tissue for the purposes of diagnosis and forensics. P


Roads, highways, sidewalks, and driveways are all considered to be types of pavement. Any paved area or surface using stone, tar, concrete, and other materials used to form a hard surface. The main function of pavement is to transfer the load to the sub-base and the soil underneath.


Pedagogy is the art, science, or profession of teaching. Successful teaching requires classroom interactions that have an important effect and respect between teachers and students. The goal of pedagogy is to help students to build on their prior learning experiences to develop skills, and for educators to create and present a curriculum in a way that is appropriate for their students’ needs and cultures.


Pediatric Experts

Pediatrics is the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants, children, and adolescents. According to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, in May of 2018 there were over 28,000 General Pediatricians in the United States. In 2016, it was estimated that the job market for Pediatricians would increase by 15.2% between 2016 and 2026.


Periodontology is the branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the gums and the supporting structures of the teeth. Periodontists also perform surgical procedures for their patients with serious gum inflammation and are involved in the placement of dental implants.

Personal Injury

Personal injury occurs when a person’s body is subjected to physical injury due to the negligence or wrongful acts of others. The injured party can ask for monetary compensation by filing a personal injury claim.


Persuasion is an important instrument for change. It can be used for good and unfortunately for evil. Today, individuals living in a democratic society will prefer to be persuaded to believe or do things instead of being told what to believe and do. The act of persuasion is an attempt to influence the beliefs, attitudes, goals, behaviors, and incentives of others.


Pharmaceuticals is the industry that discovers, develops, manufacturers and markets drugs and medications by publicly or privately-owned industries. This industry also handles generically or brand name medications and medical devices.


Pharmacogenetics is a new field that merges pharmacology, which is the science of drugs with genomics, the study of genes and their functions. This new field studies how genes can alter a person’s response to drugs.


Pharmacology is the medical branch that focuses on the uses, effects, and actions associated with drugs. Pharmacists study pharmacology to study drug reactions in the body, so they can answer their customer questions about a medication’s side effects.


In Ancient Greece, “Pharmakas” meant poison or sorcery. Pharmas, or sorcerers, ran retail shops where they provided Greeks with ingredients to make their own medicines, sold tobacco and the Pharmas’ specially made medicines.


Philosophy, or “the love of wisdom” is an interest, people engage in when they search to understand basic truths about themselves, the world they live in, and their connection to the world and others. Individuals that study Philosophy are always asking, answering, and arguing for the answers to life’s most basic questions.


Photography is the best way to capture happy, important, and fun life moments. We want those moments to last, to remember them, and to share them with other friends and relatives. Photography, or the act of taking pictures or processing photographs is a way to document moments that triumph over time, keep the memory of a loved one alive, save an important moment in history for future generations, and be an observer to moments of joy or tragedy.


Photonics is the branch of technology that studies the use of radiant energy, such as light, that has photon as a primary element. It includes the use of lasers, optics, fiber-optics, and electro-optical devices in the technology fields of alternate energy, health care, manufacturing, aerospace, and homeland security.

Physical Education

Physical Education is an important element of the school curriculum. During Physical Education classes, students are taught a healthy balance between education and exercise through basic calisthenics, gymnastics, and athletic games.

Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy is a non-invasive rehabilitative health program that uses exercises and equipment specifically designed to help patients develop, sustain, and restore maximum movement and physical function. Through exercise, practical care, and patient education, these therapists teach their patients how to manage their conditions to achieve and benefit from long-term health benefits.


Physics is the basic physical science. It is the branch of science that is focused on matter, energy and how they interact. Mechanics, heat, light, radiation, electricity, sound, magnetism, and the structure of the atom are the subject matter of Physics.


Physiology is the branch of biology that deals with the function and actions of living organisms, and their parts, such as cells, tissues, and organs. Physiology is important to the medical and health sciences fields. It provides insight into normal bodily functions and facilitates treatments that are more effective in the treatment of diseases.


The term “planning” essentially refers to a proposed or tentative project or course of action. These plans reduce the danger of a damaging, unanticipated event that could damage a company or organization.

Plant Pathology

Plant diseases can cause the loss of millions of pounds of food crops each year. Plant Pathology is the branch of Botany that studies pathogens or bacteria, viruses, and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants. Along with food crops, plant diseases can destroy forests, damage city and suburban scenery.

Plastic Surgery

Since the early 2000s, plastic surgery has become more popular each year. It has increased ninety-eight percent during that period. There were almost 2 million plastic surgery procedure performed in 2018.


Today’s world is filled with plastics. It is one of the most adaptable products in the modern world. Almost everything people use every day is partially or totally made from plastics.


Plumbing is the act of installing and maintaining plumbing systems. Plumbers install pipes, fittings, tanks, and other equipment needed for a building’s water supply, sanitation, heating and air conditioning. Plumbing brings clean water into and takes wastewater out of a structure.


A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. In actual practice, it is used to designate multiple activities, including, but not limited to, health policy, insurance policy, education policy, public policy, environmental policy, social policy, economic policy, and policy analysis.

Political Science

Political Science is the study of government and public policy, in the United States and internationally. This study involves the understanding of political ideas, philosophies, institutions, diplomacy, law, and war. Political Scientists need to consider their study of politics in an objective, systematic and rational way.


Most Americans view politics in the United States today as negative, misleading, uncivil, and preoccupied with trivial issues. The primary role of those involved in politics enacting, upholding, and amending and determining the amount of taxes to collect for public projects, such as defense, health care and education


Pollution is the discharge of chemicals or substances into the environment that are damaging to humans, animals, and plant life. Pollution can occur naturally through volcanic eruptions and forest fires, and man-made, such as fossil fuels, industrial waste disposal, and oil spills.


Polymer Experts

What do plastic bags, wool, and caulk all have in common? Polymers… large chain-like molecules that consists of monomers, or smaller, repeating molecules. Our polymers expert witnesses, speakers, and consultants specialize in a broad array of disciplines including materials science, polymer coatings, polymer solid state structure, chemical engineering, batteries, fuel cell, electrochemistry, and multicomponent polymer systems. They have published on a multitude of subjects within their specific field of expertise. Our experts have testified on a variety of topics involving PTFE, medical devices, polymer coatings, and pigments and inorganics.


Power is typically used to supply a device with mechanical or electrical energy, however, it can also be described as the ability to do something or act in a particular way. Our power expert witnesses, speakers, and consultants specialize in a broad array of disciplines including energy, electrical accidents, failure analysis, power system reliability, electrical and electronic, engineering, economics, energy market modeling, power system modeling, technology, political & social issues, and international economic relations. They have published on a multitude of topics within their specific field of expertise. Our experts have testified on a variety of issues for both the plaintiff and defendant.


One of the most important business decisions a company or service provider’s management makes is pricing. Price or cost is what a company or service provider charges for their product or service. The law of demand states that higher the price the lower the demand. If the price is too high, sales will fall.


In the Digital Age, protecting one’s privacy is critical and difficult. Privacy is defined by The Oxford Dictionary as the state or condition of being free from being observed or disturbed by other people. Different occupations have their own definition of privacy.


No one knows what will happen in the future, but probability is a way to measure the likelihood of an event happening. Probability can be communicated as proportions ranging from 0, (it will not happen) to 1, (it will happen) and as percentages ranging from 0% to 100%.

Process Control

Process controls are essential devices and instruments that keep a process operating safely and efficiently while maintaining environmental and product control requirements. These regulators ensure that processes are constant and reliable.

Process Development

Process Development is the improvement made to a company or organization’s work processes. By identifying their current work processes and creating defined steps and tasks organizations can enhance their efficiency and meet their quality standards.

Product Design

Product Design is the creation of new products to be sold by a business to its customers. Starting with the generation and analysis of ideas for a new product, to turning those ideas into a tangible product, product designers create a marketable product. A product’s design is often what makes a product successful.

Product Development

Product Development is the creation of products with new or different characteristics that offers the customer new or additional benefits. Despite its name, Product Development is not only the creation of new product, but it can also involve the modification of an existing product. Both new, and modified products can satisfy customer needs.


The process of creating and applying numerous sets of instructions that allow a computer to do a specific task. Programmers implement logic to enable specific computer operations and functions. These instructions are known as computer programs and they help the computer to perform specific tasks efficiently and effectively.

Programming Languages

The process of creating and applying several sets of instructions to assist a computer to perform a specific task is known as a programming language. These commands, instructions and syntax are used to create computer programs that help the computer operate efficiently and effortlessly.

Project Management

The term “project management” is defined as the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. Our project management experts come from various industries and backgrounds which include but are not limited to industrial engineering, civil engineering, management, telecommunications, information technology, and business management. Areas of expertise include operations management, construction management, cost management, resource management, and risk management, among many others.


Property is anything that a person or business owns. It can be owned privately, publicly, and collectively. Real and personal are two types of property. Real property immovable like land and anything attached to the land. It is purchased with the purpose of holding or making use of instead of selling. Personal property are inventories of goods to be resold.

Property Management

Property management companies oversee residential, commercial, and/or industrial real estate properties and their tenants. It usually involves managing of property that is owned by another party and entity. This includes apartments, detached houses, condominium units, and shopping centers.

Prostate Cancer

About 1 in 9 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. Approximately, 175,000 men are diagnosed with this type of cancer each year. It is the second leading cause of death for men in the United States. Age, family history, ethnicity, smoking, and diet are the leading risk factors for this cancer.


Psychiatry is the medical branch that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, emotional, and abnormal behavior. There are different treatments used in psychiatry. Depending on the patient’s needs psychotherapy, medication, psychosocial interventions, and other treatments are used as treatment.


Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind, and its functions specifically those that change behavior in specific circumstances. There are many disciplines and fields associated with the study of psychology, such as human development, health, sports, clinical, cognitive processes, and social behavior.


Psychopharmacology is the study of the use of medications to treat mental disorders that influence thought processes, attention, mood, and behavior. Psychopharmacologists have knowledge of the nervous system, mental conditions, drug dosage and side effects. They understand how drugs influence the body’s systems and work to develop a treatment plan.


Psychotherapy is the treatment of mental disorders with psychological instead of medical methods. In the psychotherapy or “talk therapy” process, psychotherapists help their patients to identify their feelings,  along with what makes them feel positive, anxious, or depressed.

Public Health

Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health and safety of society. This is accomplished with government regulation and support. Public health officials deal with epidemiology, hygiene, and disease prevention.

Public Policy

Government affects every area of our lives and we all have an interest in public policies enacted by federal, state, and local governments. Public Policy is a system of laws, regulatory processes, courses of action and funding for a certain topic announced by a government entity or its representatives.

Public Relations

The practice of managing the distribution of information between an individual, company, or an organization, and the public is known as public relations. Public relations firms use common PR tools to protect, increase, or build their client’s reputation in the media and on social media.


Publishing is the business of preparing and issuing books, magazines, journals, and other materials for sale. Publishing companies make literature and information available to the public for reading. They are responsible for the developing, marketing, producing, printing, and distribution of books and other written materials.