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A tax is money paid to the government not for transaction-specific goods and services. The five most well-known taxes are income, excise, sales, property, and estate taxes. The income tax is assessed annually by the government on an individual’s income. A duty put on manufactured goods when they are manufactured is an excise tax, while a sales tax is a duty put on manufactured goods at the time of sale. Property taxes are paid annually by property owners based on the value of their owned property. Estate taxes are put on the net value of a deceased person’s estate before it is distributed to their heirs.


Taxation is the assessment of mandatory duties on individuals and businesses by governments for the purpose of raising revenue for government expenses. There are three classifications of tax. Proportional taxes are levied at the same rate for everyone, regardless of their income. A percentage tax levies a higher rate of tax on those with higher incomes, while regressive taxes assess lower income individuals at a higher rate.


In 2018, there were approximately 3.6 million full time teachers in America’s elementary and secondary schools, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. 3.2 million of those teachers were public schools and 0.5 million in private schools. These educators are responsible for helping students gain knowledge and apply what they learned through classroom instruction.


Hand holding abstract glowing global business projection. Technology, future and interface concept. 3D Rendering

Technology is the use of science or knowledge to solve problems or invent useful tools. The advantages of modern technology are easy access to information, promotes creativity and invention, improve communication, productivity, and efficiency. Mechanical technology includes wheels, levers, gears, engines, and belts. Electronic technology like computers and washing machines use electricity to accomplish a goal. Industrial and Manufacture technology is used to create a product. For instance, robots used to manufacture automobiles. Medical technology like MRIs and ventilators help diagnose, prevent and treat disease.


Telecommunications is the system of exchanging information over a great distance by cable, telephone, telegraph and broadcasting. The telecommunications industry in today’s world has often been compared to the body’s central nervous system. Both have complex systems that connect one area to another by sending signals. The communications industry, according, had a value of $1.4 million in 2017 and is estimated to grow to $1.46 billion by 2020.


In 1950, only nine percent of American households had a television. By 1960, that number had increased to ninety percent. In the 1990’s ninety-eight percent of U.S. homes had at least one television and that television was on for at least seven hours a day. Today, according to the Consumer Electronic Association (CEA) there are 285 million televisions in the United States.


Terrorism is the use of violence or the threat of violence against civilians in order to attain objectives that are political or religious. Our expert witnesses, speakers, and consultants on terrorism are professionals from various industries and backgrounds which include but are not limited to government, security, public policy, political science, sociology, psychiatry, and social science. Areas of expertise include homeland security, criminal justice, human rights, and international relations, to name a few. Our experts have published extensively on such subjects as will terrorism end, political terrorism, financing Al Qaeda, and following terrorist money. Our experts have successfully testified for both plaintiffs and defense.


Testing is the process of evaluating a system or its elements with the goal of finding whether it fulfills specific requirements. The process of testing is used to identify errors, gaps, and missing criteria in contrast to the actual requirements. Testing is conducted in education, engineering, medicine, science, environment, drugs, psychology, software, and many other occupations.


The theater is an activity or profession of acting, producing, directing and writing live performances. In these performances, actors and actresses present the experiences of real or imaginary characters and events before a live audience. These performances are held in buildings known as theaters, some named to honor famous actors, actresses, writers, and directors.


Merriam Webster defines Theology as the study of religious faith, practice and experience, especially the study of God and God’s relation to the world. Theology differs from religious studies in that it focuses on the study of God and faith instead of investigating the customs and practices of specific religions.


Theory is an organized way of understanding situations and events through linked definitions, concepts and proposals. In research, theories are used developed to describe, predict and understand facts and occurrences. These theories have been tested and considered to be true until it is disproved.


Therapy is the treatment needed to ease or heal a disorder. There are many types of therapy. The most well-known are physical, psychotherapy, cognitive, and occupational. In physical therapy, therapists evaluate and treat an injury, disease, condition, or disability through massage, heat treatments and exercise in place of surgery or drugs. Psychotherapy helps individuals recognize the triggers of a mental condition, establish coping techniques, and problem-solving skills. Cognitive therapy uses coping and emotion regulation strategies and practical problem-solving skills to change an individual’s thinking patterns or behaviors. Occupational therapy helps individuals recuperate from a physical or mental illness and perform the functional tasks needed in life.


Thermodynamics is the science that studies the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy. Heat is the energy that matches up to a specific amount of mechanical work. It is used in all types of refrigeration, air conditioning, fossil-fuel power plants, spark-ignition engines, and jet engines.


Tissue Engineering

The goal of tissue engineering is to improve upon or completely replace biological functions, and this is primarily carried out through a combination of engineering materials, cells, and biochemical factors. It is important to regenerative medicine or tissue repair by using a tissue scaffold for the creation of new feasible tissue for medical purposes.

Title Insurance

Title insurance protects a homeowner or mortgage lender from damage or loss from liens or errors in the title. It is required by most states to close a mortgage and is usually included in the buyer’s mortgage amount. The lender’s title insurance policy covers them up to the amount of the mortgage and lasts until the mortgage is fully paid. The homeowner’s policy lasts until the property is sold. Unlike other types of insurance, which protects against future problems, title insurance protects against claims for past events.


Toxicology is the science that studies poisons and their effects on living things. Toxicologists who work in the field of ecological science identify and work to eliminate pollutants, such as toxic waste. Other toxicologists work to determine toxic exposure to workers on the job and with the Food and Drug Administrations to identify public health risks from chemical additives in food, cosmetics, and new drugs.


In 2016, an estimated 7 million trademark registration applications were filed globally, which was a 16.4 percent increase over 2015. Three times more applications were filed in 2016 than in 2001!

A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or design, or any combination that is used commercially to identify and differentiate goods from one company or seller from those of another manufacturer. Trademarks can be protected by filing a trademark registration application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and paying a registration fee. The registering of a trademark provides a company with exclusive rights to their trademark and reinforces their legal position during litigation. Our trademark expert witnesses and consultants have a broad range of experience in areas such as trademark infringement, Lanham Act, trademark dilution, false statements, false advertising, marketing, brand confusion and damages, among many others. They include scholars from major universities and professionals who have worked in advertising for Ketchum Communications, Mattel, McDonald’s, and various Fortune 500 companies; practiced law with the Federal Trade Commission; and written a number of books and articles for academic journals.


Over half of Americans own stocks. including individual stocks, pensions, mutual funds, or 401 (k) plans.  According to the Federal Reserve, in 2019, almost 94% of America’s top income earners owned stocks, while only one-third of families in the bottom 50% of income earners own stock. Nearly two-thirds of Americans between the ages of 30 and 64 own stock, but less than a third of people ages 18 to 29 own stocks because they do not have the extra money to buy stock.


Oxford Dictionary describes training as the action of teaching a person a particular skill or type of behavior. In the workforce, training can be used to improve an individual’s capabilities, aptitude, productivity, and performance. Companies that provide their employees with job specific skills training will experience improved production, lower production costs, and a reduction in errors. Trained employees will gain confidence in their skills, and a more positive work environment.


Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another by a vehicle or vehicles. Air, land, and sea are the three modes of transportation, which are important to economic growth and globalization.


Trauma is an emotional response to a terrible event like an accident, assault, or a natural disaster (, 2019). Immediately after these extreme events shock and denial are common.



Traumatic Brain Injury

According to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (2019), there are approximately 1.7 million cases of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in the United States every year. About 5.3 people live with disabilities caused by TBI.