Expert provides electronic systems, security, and computer consulting services specializing in tokens (e.g. smart cards, associated reader/writers, and procedures). Expert draws upon experience going back to 1985 when tokens such as passive/credit cards and smart cards became popular means of payment mechanisms. In addition, Expert provides services in market research in the area of smart cards and readers, represents client at smart card standards meetings and industry conventions as requested, conducts standards and patent research and technology assessment, provides professional training, and performs literature and document search and procurement services. Expert has prior litigation support experience.