Round Table Group’s National Business Development Manager, Dan Rubin, was a panelist at the 24th Annual Berkeley Center for Law & Technology/Berkeley Technology Law Journal (BCLT/BTLJ) Symposium at the University of California—Berkeley School of Law on February 27, 2020. He presented on Trends in IP Expert Challenges: Science, Technical, and Financial/Damages Experts.
At Round Table Group, we have been connecting intellectual property (IP) attorneys in Silicon Valley and across the country with science, technical, and financial/damages experts for their IP litigation for over 25 years. Through our affiliation with Thomson Reuters/Westlaw over the years, we have had access to a treasure trove of data on litigation trends. I am going to share some of our high-level findings with respect to trends in Daubert challenges in intellectual property litigation, then drill down in detail into specific trends in patent litigation specifically, and the reasons for and results of those challenges.
Starting with challenges in the sample courts in all practice areas, to expert testimony of all types: after an increase from 2014 to 2015, challenges overall decreased steadily each year thereafter, from 2015 to 2019. The trends in the results of these challenges—admitted, excluded, mixed*, and other**—tracked this decrease proportionally.
Looking at patent cases specifically, and challenges to scientific, technical and financial/damages experts combined, after a decrease in challenges to these financial and non-financial experts from 2014 to 2015, and then an increase in 2016, there has been a steady decrease since 2016. The number of instances of expert testimony excluded declined each year, as well as the number of “mixed” and “other” outcomes, with a precipitous decline from 2018 to 2019. While the instances of expert testimony admitted stayed relatively the same between 2014 and 2016, and 2017 and 2018, they also precipitously declined from 2018 to 2019.
Looking at challenges to technical experts only (engineers, biotech, computer/electronics experts, and other non-financial technical industry experts), the trends are similar, both overall and with respect to the instances of expert testimony being admitted and excluded.
Looking at financial/damages experts only (accountants, economists, appraisers, statisticians, financial analysts, etc.), the trends were very similar, with a bit less of a change between 2014 and 2016.
We then drilled down further into the results of these challenges.
As we see, with the exception of an increase in 2016, the trend is steadily downward in almost all categories.
A Daubert study by PricewaterhouseCoopers specifically examined the reasons why financial experts were excluded in the 19-year span from 2000 to 2018.* PwC used a different methodology to identify these exclusions. They searched written court opinions issued between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2018, using the citation search string “526 U.S. 137” (Kumho Tire v. Carmichael). This search identified 10,546 cases that involved 15,740 Daubert challenges to expert witnesses of all types. As a result, they identified 2,623 Daubert challenges to financial experts between 2000 and 2018.) Of the three most common financial expert types (accountants, economists and appraisers), accountants and economists were the most frequently challenged experts. Out of the 2,623 Daubert challenges to financial experts during that time frame, most often (503 times) the testimony was excluded due only to reliability (or a lack thereof) of the experts’ principles or methods underlying their testimony. Second most frequently due to relevance of the testimony only (298 times). Third, a combination of reliability and relevance (164). Fourth, qualification only (73). Fifth, a combination of reliability and qualification (62). Sixth, a combination of reliability, relevance, and qualification (28). And lastly, a combination of relevance and qualification. And lastly, a combination of reliability, relevance, and qualification (24).
For questions about this presentation, or for help locating an expert for your litigation matter, please contact Dan Rubin.
Many cases go to trial over a monetary loss or injury, and damages experts are often retained in order to lend their expertise to these cases. Our damages expert witnesses, speakers, and consultants are scholars from major universities, lawyers, accountants, economists, and industry professionals who have worked in the healthcare, computer services, construction, and real estate industries, among others.
Finance is the management of money and includes activities like borrowing, lending, investing, budgeting, savings, and for predicting. In business, finance teams make sure that the company has enough resources to operate in the best way to boost their productivity. I
Intellectual property is a form of legal entitlement which allows its holder to control the use of certain intangible ideas and expressions. The term ‘intellectual property’ reflects the idea that, once established, such entitlements are generally treated by the courts as if they are tangible property. The most common forms of intellectual property include patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets.
In June 2018, The United States Patent Office issued its ten millionth patent using its current numbering system, which began with the Patent Act of 1836. It took 155 years (1836-1991) for the Patent Office to issue its first five million patents, but only twenty-seven years to issue the next five million. There were over 308,000 patents issued in 2018 alone.
Science is the study of nature, the behavior of natural things, and what we learn about them. There are three basic scientific groups. Physics, chemistry, astronomy and geology are physical sciences. Biology, zoology, botany, genetics, and molecular biology are biological sciences. Psychology is a psychological science. The goal of science delivers natural explanations for events in the nature. It seeks to understand nature’s patterns and to make useful predictions about natural events.
Technology is the use of science or knowledge to solve problems or invent useful tools. The advantages of modern technology are easy access to information, promotes creativity and invention, improve communication, productivity, and efficiency. Mechanical technology includes wheels, levers, gears, engines, and belts. Electronic technology like computers and washing machines use electricity to accomplish a goal. Industrial and Manufacture technology is used to create a product. For instance, robots used to manufacture automobiles. Medical technology like MRIs and ventilators help diagnose, prevent and treat disease.